Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Knowledge and Attitudes of University Workers towards HIV and AIDS in Zimbabwe
Research Area: Public Health
Author(s): Tapfuiwa J Katsinde, Memory Chawira, Constance S Katsinde, Chamunorwa Nyoni
Volume 1 - Issue 2
Paper Type: Research Paper
Abstract: HIV and AIDS are major problems in Zimbabwe. They are affecting families, workplaces, communities and the whole country. Literature shows that HIV and AIDS affect the workplace because of absenteeism, stigmatisation, deaths and disruption of workplace programmes. Universities as workplace and academic institutions are negatively affected by HIV and AIDS. The aim of this study was to find out knowledge and attitudes of University workers towards HIV and AIDS. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study done at a University in Zimbabwe. A convenience sampling method was used to obtain a sample from a total population of four hundred workers. The main research instruments were questionnaires and interviews. For questionnaires one hundred and twenty (120) respondents were sampled and twelve (12) respondents were interviewed. Data was presented in the form of tables, figures and pie charts before analysis, interpretation and discussion. The study revealed that workers had basic general knowledge on HIV and AIDS. University workers’ sources of information on HIV and AIDS were mainly television, family members, workshops, short courses and newspapers. Findings also revealed that workers were aware of HIV prevention measures but did not always practice risk reduction behavior. The management of University was not doing much to implement HIV and AIDS programmes for its workers. The BUSE management in consultation with its stakeholders must implement HIV and AIDS workplace policy. Lives of workers living with HIV and AIDS would be improved by comprehensive HIV and AIDS management strategies. It is recommended that the University should subsidise medical treatment for staff members at the Student Health Clinic and offer voluntary counselling and testing services for HIV. More research is needed to establish and evaluate HIV and AIDS Programmes at the workplace as well as care and support towards employees infected and affected with HIV and AIDS.
Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Women’s Formal Education Instrumental towards Sustainable Development of Families in Rwanda: A Case of Tumba Sector of Huye District
Research Area: Social Science
Author(s): Dr. Isaboke Peter Kennedy Nyataya, Ong’esa Lorna Nyaboke
Abstract: Women’s access to formal education, today, is viewed to be a powerful determinant of national economic development and social well-being. Around the world, promoting, knowledge and personal growth means first and foremost the right to education for all. All the nations around the world, observe children experiencing the joy of learning to read, write and count, hence, giving a ray of hope for the future. In the contemporary society, formal education is seen as a vital instrument for nurturing positive change in individuals, families and communities. The present study was conducted in Tumba Sector of Huye District, Southern Province of Rwanda .It was an attempt by the present researchers to seek and analyse respondents’ views on the role formal education has had on women in the development of families in the selected area of study. The study adopted descriptive cum exploratory research designs. Data for the present study were obtained through the use of questionnaire, observation and focus group discussion methods. The study covered a total of sixty nine respondents, who were purposively selected from the population of 24,187 people who are residents of Tumba sector. The study revealed that formally educated women have, to a large extent, made contributions towards the development of the families in various ways such as in the correction of mentalities perpetuated by social-cultural constructions of confining women in domestic spheres. Besides, formal education has led to the enhancement of women and girls’ participation in career activities which were previously considered as reserves for men and boys. Further, respondents were of the view that “Incidence of domestic violence the area has decreased” due to due to the increase of men’s awareness in the area, on women’ rights, especially, rights to education. The researchers noted that the adopted suitable strategies for strengthening the implementation of Gender Policy in the area have ensured that women as well as men’s concerns and experiences are integral parts in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of all development projects being undertaken in the area. For the aforesaid to be achieved, the researchers concluded that it was noteworthy that researchers and any other interested parties, to systematically, collect gender-disaggregated data and disseminate it for policy formulation and for its adoption in the development plans directed towards all Sectors in the area.
Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Child Abuse Influence on Lower Primary School Pupil’s Academic Achievement in A Rural Setting in Kenya
Research Area: Psychology
Author(s): Mukami T. Mutua, Ong’ang’a H.M. Ouko
Abstract: Child abuse is an act of inflicting serious, physical injury and emotional torture on a child or person, which is intentional or unintentional and could endanger the physical, health, emotional, social, moral and educational wellness of the child. Observing the alarming endless cry of children in lower primary schools and those hurt in the process and abuse, the researcher was therefore interested in investigating child abuse and its effects on the academic achievement of pupils in lower primary in Nyandarua County. To achieve this purpose, a sample of 42 respondents was randomly selected for the study. Questionnaire was the major instrument used to collect data. Test re-test reliability of the instrument was established, while Parson Product moment correlation analysis was the statistical technique considered appropriate. The result of the analysis revealed that child abuse in forms of physical and sexual was associated with pupil’s academic performance. Based on the findings recommendations were made on the need for the school management and the class teachers to monitor the performance of abused children and take records to relevant authorities so that corrective mechanisms can be employed.
Abstract: Whether performance in public administration is improving or not, it is not governments only concern, too much emphasis on performance distracts attention from organizational capacity and underlying government values. Thus caution should be exercised on sources of legitimacy based on authority used during recruitment of personnel. Different systems of authority attract different personnel who will perform or not. This paper discuses three sources of legitimacy for domination based on authority and their limitations: the charismatic authority, traditional authority and legal rationality.
Abstract: Illicit brew in Kenya has existed for over a century. There has been several legislations in place meant to curb its production, consumption and sale, due to its negative impacts among them, death and addiction, dating back to the pre-independence Kenya. The aim of this paper is to examine the chronological legislations of alcohol and its effects in terms of illicit brews control since the 1900s to date. The paper utilized secondary data from journals and research reports. The Alcohol control Act 2010, is a viable legislation that can absolutely eradicate illicit brews if properly implemented, though, previous legislations received minimal impact.
Abstract: Corruption in public service in Kenya has become a bad cancer. The recent increase in the number of corruption cases has not only been disturbing nationally but has also raised emotions globally. Despite the enactment and enforcement of several acts of parliament to address the issue of corruption, the problem has continued to grow deeper into the society. Government jobs and tenders have become the most lucrative and attractive spaces as they provide a window for a person to amass wealth faster. In the last two years, there has been public outcry by the members of public, the opposition arm of parliament, the civil societies, the diplomats, the rights activists’ groups and the media who fear that a few individuals, families and tribes are the sole beneficiaries of the opportunities in the public service. The main problem involves hiring and awarding tenders to relatives, tribe-mates and friends of senior public officials, which amounts to corruption as a result conflict of interest. This paper analyzes the problem of conflict of interest in the African context, the gaps in the existing conflict of interest policy and further proposes how the public service can address this ethical issue. It mainly draws from secondary data, journal and readings, and examples of similar or closely related cases to build a solid model which can be adopted to address this ethical issue. It considers the cultural context of Kenya in which Ubuntu philosophy cannot be overlooked.