Thursday, January 17, 2019
International Journal of Law, Humanities & Social Science

ISSN(ONLINE) :2521-0793
ISSN :(PRINT) :2521-0785

Volume 1 - Issue 4

Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Status of Maternal Health: A Descriptive Study on Selected Garment Factories of Bangladesh
Research Area:  Public Health
Author(s): Dr. Hoimonty Mazumder

Abstract: This study was conducted in 6 selected garment factories in Dhaka, Gazipur, Tangail and Savar city. The main objective of this study is to explore the present health status of pregnant women working in garment sector along with their health seeking behavior, nutritional status, and common diseases during pregnancy. A total of 228 pregnant garment workers were selected in this study by simple random sampling. Most (59.6%) of the respondents were in 15-24 years age group among them 15.8 % were in under twenties. Despite of increasing monthly household income the visible change on health status of pregnant women hasn’t been seen. Only 20.2 percent pregnant women have taken one antenatal care by their 6 months of current pregnancy. Approximately, 96 percent delivery has done by normal vaginal delivery among which 84.2 percent delivery have conducted in home. Only 15.84 percent delivery has done in any institution. In order to identify nutritional status of pregnant women, blood hemoglobin level and mid upper arm circumference have used. In findings, 27.2 percent women have identified as muscle wasting by MUAC and 30.7 percent diagnosed as anemic by blood hemoglobin level. The significant positive correlation has seen between blood hemoglobin level and MUAC (r= 0.589) of 228 pregnant women. Long working period, work pressure, restraint and congested working environment, poor health facilities at garment’s health center, lack of education, noxious living, lack of knowledge about health and health behavior etc. eventually lead morbid impact on health.

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Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Employee’s Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards as Stimulus of Increased Organizational Commitment: A Study of Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan
Research Area:  Social Science
Author(s): Dr. Komal Khalid, Saima Aftab

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on different forms of employee’s organizational commitment (Continuous, Affective and Normative commitment) in Higher Education Sector of Pakistan. Data was collected regarding impact of intrinsic rewards (Ganzach 1998;Champion, Papper, & Medsker, 1996) and extrinsic rewards (De Beer, 1987) on different forms of organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen, 1997) from Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan. Study sample included 513 faculty members from 34 different universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Reliability statistics, Confirmatory Factor analysis, Descriptive Statistics, Pearson Correlation Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis were used to analyse the data. Results indicated that intrinsic have a greater effect on affective commitment of faculty members whereas variables of extrinsic rewards have a greater influence on continuous commitment. Study also found out that salary is highly significant for all types of organizational commitment but it is influencing continuous commitment more as compared to other two forms.

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Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Patterns and circumstances of girl child marriages in Mount Darwin district in Zimbabwe
Research Area:  Social Science
Author(s): Eniko Chenge, Levison Maunganidze

Abstract: Girl child marriage is a major problem in Zimbabwe. The girl child marriages are affecting families in all the ten provinces of the country. Literature shows that child marriage is an international problem which is more prevalent in developing countries in Africa and Asia. Child marriage has several negative consequences on victims, therefore the United Nations declared it a violation of human rights. The aim of this study was to find out patterns and circumstances of girl child marriages in Mount Darwin district in Zimbabwe. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving fifty-two (52) women who were conveniently sampled from eight wards of the district with the highest prevalence of child marriage. Data was elicited using a self-report questionnaire and was analysed using frequencies and percentages. Findings were presented in the form of tables and figures. The study revealed that most spouses of victims of child marriages were older men in polygamous marriages and boys of their ages. Most girl children entered these marriages while staying with their parents and out of school. The majority (40%) of girls eloped into marriage after being impregnated while a third (32%) of them initiated their marriages and eloped without pregnancy. The factors which encouraged girls into early marriages were poverty, pressure from significant others (peers, parents and guardians), ignorance, lack of support from parents/guardians and influence of church doctrines. It was recommended that families, communities and institutions such as churches and schools be mobilised as agents of change, by creating awareness of the harmful impacts of child marriage. More research is needed to establish patterns and circumstances of girl child marriage in other parts of the country. More research of large magnitude is needed to establish patterns and circumstances of girl child marriage in Mt Darwin and in other parts of the country.

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Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Examining the psychological and social predictors of burnout among nurses employed by the government: A study of nurses at Gweru Provincial Hospital
Research Area:  Social Science
Author(s): Salfina Sibanda, Benjamin Mambende,  Levison Maunganidze

Abstract: The study sought to examine the psychological and social predictors of burnout among nurses employed at the public hospital in Gweru, Zimbabwe. The primary aim was to determine the relationship between occupational and demographic stress factors and burnout levels among nurses. The study population consisted of 126 male and female nurses from Gweru General Hospital. A disproportionate stratified random sampling procedure was used to meet the sample required. Data was gathered through structured questionnaires. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of burnout. The result of the findings indicated organizational constraints, death and dying related stress, and age as significant predictors of burnout among nurses. Workload, nurse intention to leave and working experience were not found to significantly predict burnout among nurses. To reduce the level of burnout, it was recommended to make fundamental improvements to the hospital organizational climate and increase leadership support.

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Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: The effect of work discretion and time availability towards entrepreneurial orientation in malaysia: case study from shin-etsu malaysia
Research Area:  Social Science
Author(s): Braham Rahul Ram, Kesavan Nallaluthan, Norshafizah Binti Hanafi

Abstract: Determine entrepreneurial orientations of manufacturing employees were very complex issues. However, employee’s entrepreneurial orientation identified as an important factor in any manufacturing organization to sustain in their competitors worldwide. The purpose of the study was, to examine the relationship between work discretion (WD) and time availability (TA) towards entrepreneurial orientation (EO) where mediated by learning orientation (LO) among employees of Shin-Etsu Malaysia (SEM). Seven hypotheses were formulated based on the theoretical framework and supported by Research based view (RBV) theory which were (a) there is a significant relationship between WD and LO, (b) there is a significant relationship between TA and LO, (c) there is a significant relationship between LO and EO, (d) there is a significant relationship between WD and EO, (e) there is a significant relationship between TA and EO, (f) there is a significant relationship between WD and EO, mediating effect by LO and (g) there is a significant relationship between TA and EO, mediating effect by LO. The quantitative research was conducted by using validated research questionnaire. The population consisted of all employees who were working in the SEM. The total number of respondents was 531 out of 700 randomly selected. An overall response rate of 75.8 per cent was obtained. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to analyse the survey data while ensuring that all the necessary assumption are met (high, medium and low level of SEM employees). The result indicated that all seven hypotheses tested were supported. Generally, the study provides empirical evidence that there is a significant relationship between WD, TA and EO. LO was also found to partially mediate the relationship between WD, TA and EO. As a managerial contribution, this study expected to contribute to academic research and management practice in SEM organizations even though a limitation in this research was only conducted among SEM employees. So as a future research, a mixed method longitudinal study should be conducted to gain better understanding of the patterns, determinants and dynamics of change among the constructs’ hypothesis and conduct this research on different sector of industries or businesses.

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Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Self help groups agents of change in the present society
Research Area: Social Science
Author(s): Dr. Isaboke Peter Kennedy Nyataya

Abstract: The concept of self-help group as old as mankind and has been existence in all societies in the world all over though in different names at different times. Self-help groups are now viewed as great catalysts for the socio-economic development of the people in the developing world. There is sufficient evidence from studies already undertaken that the role of self-help groups in building new a world is inevitable. The present research was undertaken with a view to understanding: how and why self helps groups have been formed; the nature of activities they undertake and the benefits they bring to members; how they have been able to solidify their strengths and used them to integrate the communities. The study adopted descriptive cum case study research design and used content analysis technique. Self-help groups in India, Kenya and Rwanda were looked into and analysed scientifically, with a view to realising the objectives of the study. The self-help groups have made a lasting mark on the lives of women, youth and the vulnerable especially in rural areas. They have been able to develop their talents, skills and abilities in different productive social and economic activities. For instance, they have been able to save whatever amount of money they can save every month and mutually agree to contribute to a common fund with a view to lending to their members for meeting their productive and emergent credit needs. It has therefore been observed that there is an increase in their income, savings and consumption expenditure. Due to improved economic opportunities and their ability to take collective action, studies, indicate that there has been significant decline in gender-based violence among their members. Other benefits members of self-help groups have gained include: increased self-reliance and self confidence that have improved the ability of members to mobilise various public services for their benefit; they have acquired high self-esteem which has enhanced their capacity to work; illiterate and semi-illiterate, the old, the youth and the vulnerable/marginalised have become productive and important members of the family. Hence, it can be stated that self-help groups in the present society have proven their worthiness as social and economic building blocks particularly in the developing societies.

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Paper Type: Policy Paper
Title: Informal Sector and Taxation in Kenya: Causes and Effects
Research Area: Public Finance
Author(s): Ndaka, Angella Katee

Abstract: Finance whether public or private, domestic or international is one of the pillars for sustainability of any state. Any government/state needs funds to finance its institutions, agencies, development projects, its security apparatus, to pay workers and to finance its social enterprises just to name a few.  Public finance is thus pertinent for growth and sustainability of any economy and can be either domestic private or domestic public, international public or international private finance, it can also be blended finance. Either way, public finance is critical for financing every economy that aspires for sustainable development. This is because revenue or tax is used not only to fund education and health which are key pillars for promotion human capital growth but also helps in supporting the growth of local economy through development of infrastructure which support the local business networks and, cash transfers and subsidies which help induce supply and demand in local markets. Tax administration and policy should be among the biggest concerns for any struggling economy. Every country desires to have a tax administration instrument that is efficient in collection of the taxes and a tax payer base that is fully compliant. This paper will analyze the causes and effects of the Informal sector on revenue collection in Kenya. It shall draw from secondary data findings in Kenya and through meta-analysis conclude that Kenya needs to relook its tax administration and policy if it is going to make progress in Public finance.

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Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Family Factors that contribute to school dropout in Rushinga District in Zimbabwe
Research Area: Social Science
Author(s): Ropafadzo Patience Chenge, Eniko Chenge, Levison Maunganidze

Abstract: The study was aimed at finding out the family factors that contribute to secondary school dropouts in Rushinga District. A case study design was used. Purposive and simple random sampling were used to select 55 participants. These included 30 learners who responded to a survey questionnaire, 12 school dropouts who responded to a structured face-to-face interview questionnaire, three senior teachers and three heads of department from guidance and counselling responded to a survey questionnaire, three Councillors, three school heads and one District Learner Social Welfare Officer responded to hand-posted structured qualitative questionnaire. The research results showed that there were many aspects from the family level that contributed towards Secondary School dropouts. The major ones being the financial constraints, low level of education of parents, separation or divorce of parents and death of parents/ guardians. The researcher recommended that the parents/guardians should at all cost participate in school activities so that they acquaint, be enlightened, see the value of education and appreciate all efforts that improve learning and prevents school dropouts.

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