Thursday, April 25, 2019
International Journal of Law, Humanities & Social Science

ISSN(ONLINE) :2521-0793
ISSN :(PRINT) :2521-0785

Volume 2 - Issue 2

Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Analysis Of Bacteriological Composition Of Storm Water In Ongata Rongai Town, Kenya
Research Area:  Social Science
Author(s): Agnes Jemuge Maleyo, Kennedy Japhan Omoke

Abstract: The issue of storm water management is a big problem in developing countries. In Africa in general, and particularly in Kenya, urban planning is a threat due to pollution since it is done with inadequate involvement experts. One of the consequences is poor drainage, and inadequate and a lack of sewerage system. In Ongata Rongai, Kenya, heavy rainfall floods the settlements situated in the town and the effects are manifold, including poor sanitation, among other effects. This project investigated and assessed mainly the environmental challenges and effects associated with storm water management in Ongata Rongai town, specifically analysing the bacteriological composition of storm water resulting from poor sewage disposal. The study adopted an experimental and survey design where the experimental design involved analysis of storm water samples collected from clusters in the study area. The survey design adopted a structured questionnaire targeting 2000 households in Laiser Hill sub-location in Ongata Rongai. Spatial clustering of these households gave three clusters and sample size of 90 in the study area. Quantitative primary data gathered obtained analysed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The study establishes that environmental pollution challenge in Ongata Rongai is a result of lack of established sewerage system to dispose septic tank contents. E coli were detected in high numbers during the bacteriological analysis of sampled storm water. High incidents of storm water-related diseases and several court cases were among the findings. Constructions of sewer lines, new drainages were some of the suggested solutions.

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Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Assessment Of Socio–Economic Effects Of Storm Water Management Challenges In Ongata Rongai
Research Area:  Social Science
Author(s): Agnes Jemuge Maleyo, Kennedy Japhan Omoke

Abstract: Storm water management is a big problem globally, with developing countries receiving further complications due to global warming. In Africa, and particularly in Kenya, urban planning for many developments is carried out without the involvement of experts. One of the negative consequences is poor drainage, which causes negative effects on socio-economic activities of the residents.  In Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, in Kenya, heavy rainfall floods the settlements with manifold effects; sanitation and other negative economic and environmental effects. This project investigated and assessed mainly the effects associated with poor storm water management in Ongata Rongai town, specifically assessing the socio-economic effects of storm water management challenges. Survey research design was adopted where a structured questionnaire that targeted a population of 2000 households in Laiser Hill sub-location was used. Three spatial clusters of households were done depending on their residential and commercial characteristics to arrive at sample size of 90. Quantitative primary data collected from households was analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics to test hypotheses. The study found out that socio-economic challenges are enormous as a result of poor storm water management in the town. This is further complicated by lack of established sewerage system to dispose septic tank contents and inadequate storm drains. A prolonged surface run off due to heavy rains in most cases seep into business premises destroying goods and blocking customer access, hence business closure. Storm water-related diseases have high case recordings at the area’s government dispensary have also affected the town’s economy negatively.

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Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Assessment of the teaching and learning of Marxist philosophy in higher educational institutions in Lao PDR
Research Area:  Education
Author(s): Wu Jing, Sybuamala Phoutthaphone, Yu Dahuai

Abstract: This research used the qualitative method and the SWOT analysis. The study has found that strengths, infrastructures have been developed and improved in good and sufficient; teachers are active and highly responsible. Weaknesses, the curriculum of Marxist philosophy is not real appropriate, lacking qualified teacher in Marxism; materials and ITCs are not sufficient; and scholarships, skills of teachers are limited. Opportunities, the government has paid attention, proved strategic framework and priorities; and international cooperation is available. Threats, the impact of socioeconomic competition and change in the globalisation. The teaching and learning should be solved by both the government and the HEIs by themselves to improve in the new curriculum, and method of teaching and learning, research and community service, quality, assurance, resources, facilities, and governance and management for the better teaching and learning of Marxist philosophy and needs of the political task and socioeconomic development in the future.

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Abstract: The Philippines is one of the most vulnerable and susceptible country to the negative consequences of climate change and natural disasters. Located at one of the areas along the Pacific Ocean’s Ring of Fire, the Philippines had endured thousands of deadly types of disaster that killed more than thousands of lives and accumulated significant economic damages throughout the history. With the presence of climate change, the Philippines is expected to experience frequent and more common natural catastrophic events that will ultimately test the  government’s efforts in disaster risk and management as well as the resilience of the population at risk  This article aims to examine the relationship of two climate change-related variables, i.e. (1) country’s level of vulnerability and (2) readiness to combat climate change stressors, and identify their explanatory capacity on the severity of natural disasters, i.e. natural disaster-related deaths, in the Philippines. Using the data set over the period of 1995 to 2016, the study estimated the influence of two independent variables on the magnitude of natural disasters in the country through correlational and regression analyses. The research findings suggest that both country’s measure of vulnerability to climate change and its readiness to establish important mechanisms to combat climatic stressors do not statistically influence the magnitude of natural disasters in the Philippines. However, the overall research provides emphasis on examining other socioeconomic and political factors influencing the severity of natural disasters and their interlinkages and complex relationships. In addition, the study contributes to the previous reports about how the impact of natural disasters can potentially outweigh those established and on-going disaster risk and management efforts. Such misfortune, however, should not undermine the importance of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. Future scholars may examine other important indicators that shape the country’s vulnerability and capacity to endure natural catastrophic events.

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Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: The Unwinding Of UN Peace Operations In Africa:  Implications For Regional Peace And Stability
Research Area:  Social Science
Author(s): Emmanuel Wekem Kotia, Mustapha Abdallah

Abstract: The draw downs of United Nations peace operations from the African continent require thorough arrangements that are fit to face the challenges ahead. This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion on UN peace operations in the light of recent development and apparent difficulties in ensuring stability in the aftermath of mission withdrawals. Through extensive desk research, and relying on the author’s comprehensive knowledge on peacekeeping in Africa, the paper discusses the impact of the unwinding of peace operations on peace and security in Africa. It also analyses how draw downs can create space for the existing terrorist to undermine relative peace and security in mission theatres. Future prospects for peace and areas for possible improvement are outlined. The research highlights the potential challenges associated with mission closures, including but not limited to the emerging issues of democratic transitions, particularly election-related issues, SSR, DDR and reintegration of former combatants into national armies. The paper concludes that while financing remains challenges to UN peace operations, putting in place resilient structures is critical to ensuring peace and stability and prevents conflict.

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Paper Type: Conceptual Paper
Title: Nigerian Oil Economy: Some Lessons For Cyprus
Research Area: Sociology
Author(s): Professor Kaniye S.A. Ebeku

Abstract: Oil/hydrocarbons is still the greatest source of energy in the world. Although its importance is diminishing with the development of alternative/environment-friendly sources of energy such as wind-power and solar energy, it is the case that the pre-eminent position of oil as a source of energy will remain so for some time to come. For most oil-producing countries, oil revenue is a significant source of income. For instance, this is the case in Nigeria, whose economy depends heavily on oil revenue. Even so, oil can also be a curse as it may cause poverty in the country, breed corruption, precipitate human rights abuses and other contradictions. This is the experience of some oil-producing countries such as Nigeria, Libya, Ecuador, and Algeria. The recent discovery of hydrocarbons in Cyprus is surely an important development for the country. However, given the negative experience of other oil-rich countries it is important to explore the possible lessons Cyprus may learn from such experience that could help her maintain a healthy economy when oil revenue starts rolling in as projected, in 2022. This is the central objective of this paper and will be pursued using Nigeria as a case-study. Importantly, the Cyprus economy without oil revenue is strong and healthy; income is derived from diverse sources such as tourism, services and agriculture. This article suggests that Cyprus should learn from the experience of Nigeria and avoid abandoning other sources of revenue when oil revenue starts rolling in so that it would not suffer ‘Dutch Disease’. Moreover, from the experience of Nigeria, Cyprus should take precautionary steps to check oil industry related corruption, internal conflicts and other paradox which hydrocarbon could bring about. In the end, the article recommends that the Cyprus economy should remain diversified in order to ensure sustainable prosperity.

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Paper Type: Policy Paper
Title: Community Participation Impacting Clean Water Projects’ Sustainability In Rwanda: A Case Study On Ruhango Sector Of Ruhango District
Research Area: Technology and Business Studies
Author(s): Dr. Isaboke Peter Kennedy Nyataya, Melchizedek Keoye Nyarora

Abstract: The study focused on community participation in clean water project sustainability. It was guided by three objectives; assess how Ruhango sector communities participate in the initial stages of clean water projects. To investigate the effect of the Ruhango Sector community participation in clean water project design and implementation and to investigate the obstacles to the participation of Ruhango sector communities in clean water projects. Policy makers and implementers are to benefit from this research as it will provide them with the insight to make clean water development projects strategies more effective to Ruhango Sector communities as well as other communities. Furthermore, organizations involved in the water development sector will gain deeper understanding as to how to maneuver through the hindrances to community participation. This research finding will be useful to students and scholars doing research in this field as it will be available for reference both online. The research has also put the Geographical location on record as far as ground realities on sustainability of wash projects are concerned in relation to hearsay. A pretest of the research instruments was administered to ten respondents chosen randomly, 90% of these were of the affirmed that clean water projects sustainability could be achieved through community participation at initial and implementation stages. 96% of the respondents agreed that they feel great ownership of the projects when they participate and that this has improved their social networks. 95% acknowledged that the greatest challenge to participation is lack of technical knowledge about water and complicated technology used in water systems This study employed descriptive survey. The study population constituted of the household heads, other sector water informants and other water project implementers. The respondents were reached through household survey and purposive identification of the subject matter or key informants across relevant local institutions. The study used a combination of both probability and non-probability sampling techniques. This study collected quantitative data using a questionnaire from 100 respondents and 20 other key players in the water sector were interviewed. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics generated from statistical tools (SPSS V.17.0 and Excel). The researchers have recommended the following; the level of community’ participation in the project planning and implementation should be increased to enhance the sustainability of the water projects in the sector. The project Implementers should seek to adopt modern community friendly technology through increased community training on sustainability. The government should institute stringent measures to ensure that community participation is achieved in order to orient them to the whole project cycle processes other than community being at the receiving end and just users. The water projects should be managed by highly competent personnel to increase its efficiency and sustainability. Finally, the researchers recommend that Community based water project implementers should continue to engage with other key stakeholders in the water sector for concerted effort to support government efforts on community mobilization and sensitisation on the critical role they play as partners for clean water projects sustainability in their communities.

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Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Shari’ah Implementation In Nigeria: A Reflection On The Views Of Journalists, Human Rights Activists, Some Non-Muslim And Expatriate Scholars
Research Area: Law and Social Science
Author(s):  Uthman A. Abdulqadir

Abstract: This content analysis study is an appraisal of the web of reflections of views of academic, journalist, a politician on the implementation of Shariah Legal System (2000) in Northern Nigeria. The study appraises web of responses with regards to conception, designing and implementation of the Shari’ah Legal System in Nigeria. These reflections have however shaped the direction, impact on the full implementation of Shari’ah in Nigeria. Secondary methods of generating data were utilized using both libraries, books, journals and newspaper articles. The key findings showed some reflections were genuine and others were mere religiously biased political motive of Shari’ah sold water stories from some journalist are biased due to lack of knowledge/hatred. This shows that some of the views particularly of non-Muslims were a just sheer objection or rejection against anything related to Islam and Muslims no matter how good and rational it is. For a way forward Shari’ah should not be for political motive should be proper knowledge, should be implemented in a uniform, genuine and well implemented.

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Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Reflections On The Combat Against Human Trafficking In Ghana
Research Area: Social Science
Author(s): Tuinese Edward Amuzu

Abstract: December 2015 marked 10 years since Ghana enacted the Human Trafficking Act, 2005 (Act 694) to combat Trafficking in Persons in Ghana. The 2014 U.S. Department of State Report on Trafficking in Persons classifies Ghana as a tier 2 country. In 2003, Ghana was one of the few tier 1 countries from West Africa. Ghana is a source, transit and destination country for Human Trafficking. The 2014 Trafficking in Persons Report notes that in Ghana, internal Trafficking in Persons is more prevalent than trans-national trafficking. The Anti-Human Trafficking Unit of the Ghana Police Service is reputed for being highly motivated. Various Civil Society Organisations have conducted awareness raising campaigns throughout the years. However, Social Welfare structures established decades ago have not seen appreciable improvements. At the time these structures were built, the main concerns were domestic violence against women and children. With pressure mainly from the United States, Act 694 was enacted. But Act 694 appears to be a law enforcement tool to the combat human trafficking. How could the institutional arrangements have been set up for a more efficient combat against trafficking in the face of limited resources? I conclude that the incentive structures for the decisions on Trafficking in Persons must be re-oriented taking cognizance of the interests, powers and motivations of public office holders, victims, traffickers and other key stakeholders. This requires the adoption of a holistic approach to combating Trafficking in Persons.

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