Paper Type: Research Paper
Title: Umurenge Savings and Credit Cooperatives as Building Blocks for Socio-Economic Development of Rural Rwanda
Research Area: Social Science
Author(s): Dr. Isaboke Peter Kennedy Nyataya
Volume 2 - Issue 6
Paper Type: Research Paper
Abstract: The study was conducting with a view to having a better understanding how in general KAVISACCO of Kagogo Sector of Burera District of Rwanda has contributed towards the enhancement of socio-economic lives of its members and that of the residents of the area in general. Besides, the identification of the challenges of the SACCO and measures that can be adopted with a view to overcoming the challenges faced. The explanatory research design was adopted for the study. The total population for the study was 4572, members of the KAVISACCO. In determining the representative sample size, the researcher applied the Alain Bouchard’s Mathematical Formula. Hence,92 respondents were selected for the study. Data were obtained from primary sources and secondary sources using the interview method and questionnaire method. The members/beneficiaries of the SACCO were noted to have been able to lead a better living, had increased their incomes through the establishment of income generating activities; mobilised savings and opened personal bank accounts; they were able to raise school fees for their school-going children and managed to purchase household property such as furniture, land, houses, solar equipment, beds and beddings, clothes and food. The present researcher is of the view that KAVISACCO should explore the possibility of increasing the amount of money given to its beneficiaries as loans to make somewhat adequate to enable them enough room to use in expanding their respective income generating activities. The SACCO should organise regular sensitisation and training programmes with a view to creating conscious-awareness among them in all aspects pertaining to the benefits and services the SACCO is rendering. Members and beneficiaries of KAVISACCO should be encouraged to continue sharing their respective and relevant skills. Besides, they should diversify their business investment projects. The local government should provide clear guidelines directed towards ensuring SACCOs, in general, are able to manage themselves well and according to the set standards, if they want to remain relevant in the area and its surrounding environs. Hence, it can be conclusively stated that KAVISACCO is/has acted as a building block for the socio-economic development of the people of Kagogo Sector and the people of Burera District in general.
Abstract: Throughout time, performance has been the domain of celebrating the process of being and becoming by rejecting, affirming and consolidating identities and cultures. This article argues that contemporary storytelling performances in Kenya can be viewed as a site for the construction of national culture and identity. Postcolonial theory, used in this article, engages dominant discourses in its endeavour to give credible representation to the colonial subject within situations of unequal power relations. Moreover, the theory’s critique of Western pretensions of the universality of knowledge which results in recovery of submerged knowledge systems from the margins enables the article to revive such concepts such as ‘national culture’. Consequently, this exploration attempts to examine how culture is created when opportunities for its deliberate construction avail themselves through the performance of contemporary storytelling. Logically, in constructing national culture, contemporary storytelling negotiates postcolonial interventions in the search for coherence, stability and control of this mode of expression and communication. This is observable in the innovative communicative strategies of storytelling in terms of management, organization, production and performance. The findings arise from fieldwork research conducted in Kenya between 2004 and 2007 which sampled performance of contemporary oral storytelling in commercial, corporate and educational institutions (the chief performers are the youth) with a view to determining how national culture is created, negotiated and perpetuated.
Abstract: In the light of the inevitable twinning of linguistic theory and literary critical interpretation and appreciation, Ray Bradbury’s narrative techniques constitute his thematic and aesthetic discourse. Bradbury’s stylistic narrative discourse evokes a set of narrative tools through which characters communicate ideas, thoughts, and feelings, creating aesthetic effects that appeal to readers. These blended artistic elements are interpreted in the light of the theoretical fictional context of narrator-character, character-character, narrator-reader interactions. Exploring a web of narrative-characterization centres in Bradbury’s story Cistern, the paper sheds light on the centre of the point of view, dialogic narrative technique, and thematic concerns that include internal and external conflicts. Meantime, the paper draws on Gérard Genette’s analytical method of study of narrative discourse, among others. Moreover, Bradbury’s themato-narrative techniques offer a modern interpretative community for understanding his characterization centres and serve as a receptionist case study for scholars and critics of modern literary criticism.
Abstract: Traditionally, non-international armed conflicts are perceived to be illegitimate practices that ought to be dealt with internally by the sovereign governments. The practice has caused an absence of international humanitarian law (IHL) provisions in domestic legislation of many states. In that regard, this paper assesses the laws of Tanzania in managing legal issues during the non-international armed conflict. The assessment discloses that applying the laws of Tanzania during non-international armed conflict is likely to prove a failure because they provide for matters of general concern (Lex Generalis). On the other hand, it is hard to substantiate whether the courts of Tanzania can apply the existing laws without discrimination in the eyes of the Sovereign. Studies have revealed that following the end of a non-international armed conflict States are encouraged to grant the broadest possible amnesty to persons who have participated in the armed conflict. However, in the absence of IHL provisions, there is a possibility for impunity enjoyment against punishment for serious human rights violations on the part of the members of the armed forces. Therefore, it is time for Tanzania to rethink on the existing statutory lacunae and select a more effective and principled basis for IHL applicability.
Abstract: Growth is regarded as key to poverty reduction. Poverty is a widely defined term, and most definitions take its multidimensional aspects into consideration. According to the World Bank (2000), “poverty is a lack of power to command resources”. The poverty reduction has become a central goal for development. It can be achieved by economic growth and/or by the distribution of income. Issues related to the benefits of growth accrued to the poor have become a priority of development policy in the 1990s. An emerging consensus is that growth alone is a rather blunt tool for poverty reduction. In conjunction with an emphasis on poverty reduction, policies as to the redistribution of income and assets have become increasingly more important. A policy agenda that addresses both distributional concerns and poverty reduction could lead to enhancing both economic growth and equity. This study presents several analytical results on poverty elasticity, measuring the extent to which economic growth reduces poverty. It offers several propositions to demonstrate that the initial levels of economic development and income inequality can have significant impacts on poverty reduction. It also demonstrates that the poverty tradeoff between growth and inequality can be explained in terms of initial levels of development and inequality.
Abstract: Compensation to victims is the most common remedy in cases where corporates cause harm to an individual but in the absence of a legal provision in most countries, no corrective action is taken against the respective corporate bodies. The lack of stringent measures and remedial obligations provide a leeway for corporates not to be held accountable for their negligence. In Mauritius, there is no law that would hold a corporation criminally liable for damages caused to a person arising from its negligence. This paper aims to analyse the existing Mauritius legal framework and case laws concerning the liability of corporates involved in cases causing the death, injury or illness of an individual. The loopholes in Mauritius will be analysed and recommendations will be suggested with a view to amend or strengthen the laws to allow for the inculpation of corporates in some specific circumstances. For the purpose of this study, the black letter approach is adopted by analysing the laws and relevant case laws on the subject matter. Since Mauritius corporate laws are highly inspired from UK law, a comparative analysis of Mauritius laws against the legal provisions of the UK Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 will be carried out to come up with useful recommendations which may be of benefit to the stakeholders concerned.
Paper Type: Research paper
Title: The Lived Experiences of Youths Involved in Sexting in the Greendale Suburb of Harare
Research Area: Social Science
Author(s): Juliet Makondora and Levison Maunganidze
Abstract: To effectively educate young people on the implications of sexting, it is important to understand sexting from a holistic picture. The study sought to investigate the lived experiences of youths on the important phenomenon understood as sexting. The research gave an ear to youths involved in sexting and in an attempt to highlight their experiences. Eight youths between the ages of 18-24, whom reside in the Greendale suburb participated in the study. The researcher used questionnaires and online ethnography to select the participants. 20 youths were randomly picked and asked about sexting and whether they would be interested to participate in the study, furthermore they were asked if they would befriend the researcher on Facebook for study purposes. Only 15 youths agreed and gave the researcher their Facebook names. The researcher followed those that had agreed to befriend her on Facebook and from their profile updates information 8 participants were selected. The thematic content analysis with the assistance of the NVivo (version10) was used to analyse the data gathered from the in-depth interviews. It was founded that sexting was prevalent amongst youths and was very influential in youths engaging in sexually risky behaviours, infidelity included. The phenomenon called sexting was found to be dangerous as it causes psychological harm in the youths whose nude pictures are shared online, and these youths had no support systems to access for help. Another finding was that girls were emotional while boys viewed sexting as a fun-filled practice. The researcher however recommended that phscho-social support systems be created in youth friendly environments for example in learning institutes since most youths spent their time there. Policies on sexting are to be formulated to protect the minors from the harm associated with sexting lastly, cybertherapy was recommended since the youths were reluctant to talk to their elders about sexting due to fear of being judged. Life skills training on sexuality issues were to be availed for youths and teachers in an attempt to protect them from risky sexual behaviours.
Paper Type: Concept Paper
Title: Matters to Be Taken into Consideration While Handling Child Witness in Malaysia
Research Area: Law and Social Science
Author(s): Braham Rahul Ram, Norbani Binti Mohamed Nazeri, and Kesavan Nallaluthan
Abstract: There has been an increasing number of children, giving evidence in court about crimes against them, most frequently sexual abuse crimes. At present criminal courts are rarely able to benefit from children’s memories of events because of restrictions on their competency, which may be given due to their accounts and through the fact that the process of giving evidence is a traumatizing experience for children. Added to this, children are more likely to relate their experiences when relaxed, free from coercive pressure or anxiety the opposite qualities to those found in a courtroom designed for ‘adult’ proceedings. The objective of Evidence of Child Witness Act 2007 is to provide special procedures (more child-friendly methods) for giving evidence, to ensure that a child witness can testify comfortably, and not been traumatized by the complex technicalities or settings of the courtroom. Generally, what children fear most is a confrontation or facing the accused or the abuser. The role of an intermediary under Section 8(2) of the Evidence of Child Witness Act 2007, is very crucial during the trial to ensure that appointed intermediary can assist the child effectively while ensuring the smooth flowing of the court process. There is no specific mention of the qualification of the intermediary in the act. We would like to recommend that there should be clear provision stipulated in the act to mention that the intermediaries should possess qualification, experience and background related to a child, for example, a child psychologist. We recommended that there should be an amendment to Video recording of a child witness under Section 8(2) of the Evidence of Child Witness Act 2007, in which initial video recording should take place within 48 hours of when the crime has been reported, due to the memory and evidence of the event is still fresh in the children memory thus its crucial to obtain the best quality of evidence.
Abstract: One of the major human rights predicaments that transcend cultural, economic, social and religious ranks is family / domestic violence. It hinders human dignity, health and in the long period become the main problem to socio-economic and political growth. The intention of this study is to examine the challenges undermining domestic violence victims’ access to justice in Ghana, assess the causes of domestic violence in Ghana, determine the effects of domestic violence on women, and finally, offer recommendations to help domestic violence victims to have access to justice. Using a non-quantitative approach, the study tells of women’s rights in Ghana in times past, sourced from journal articles, books, reports and reviews, with emphasis on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the adoption of Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women by the United Nations. Education, as well as cultural norms and inadequacy of resources by NGO’s and state entities, were, however, related to family/domestic violence among Ghanaian women.