Research Area: Social Science
Title: Ownership of Mineral Oils in Nigeria: The Need for Judicial Review of Legislations Affecting the Niger Delta Region
Keywords: Ownership, Oil and Gas, Resource Control, Revenue Derivation Principle, Socio-Economic Development, Corporate Social Responsibility
Author(s): Dr. Michael Takim Otu and Miebaka Nabiebu
Author’s Institution: University of Calabar, Nigeria
Volume 3 - Issue 4
Research Area: Social Science
Abstract: The subject of ownership and control of oil and gas in Nigeria is one that has generated a great deal of passion and controversy amongst people and nations. Since her attainment of independence in1960, there has been a constant struggle for ownership and control of these natural resources (oil and gas) between Nigerian citizens and the Federal Government of Nigeria. The Niger Delta Region whose oil wealth sustains the whole country remains a portrait of poverty, infrastructural decay, Social dislocation, and environmental degradation. This article examines some of the issues which have overtime hampered the practice of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Niger-Delta region especially with regards to Petroleum exploration in the Region which include but not limited to environmental and ecological degradation, loss of means of livelihood, inter and intra communities squabbles, among others. All these negative impacts of petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta Region together with other reasons such as lack of human development, lack of good governance, lack of infrastructure, delays in delivering benefits to communities, lack of equity in the distribution of resources, social federalism, derivation issue, land ownership and control of resources including the oppressive and obsolete laws affecting the Niger-Delta Such as the mineral Act, the Petroleum Act, the Oil pipeline Act, the land Use Act, etc which have overtime hampered the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the region especially the legal mechanisms in place as they relate to the environment, oil and gas industry in Nigeria with a view for reforms. The article further examines the geopolitics of ownership and control of oil and gas and the burning issue of resource control agitation. The writer ended this article with concluding remarks as well as suggesting appropriate recommendations as a way out of the quagmire.
Research Area: Language and Culture
Title: Filipinisms of Student Publications among Universities and Colleges in Cebu
Keywords: Filipinisms, Student Publications, Morphological, Syntactical, Cebu
Author(s): Rechie C. Bejasa and Carmel Vip C. Derasin
Author’s Institution: College of Arts and Sciences, Cebu Normal University, Cebu, Philippines)
Abstract: This study analyzed the emergent morphological and syntactical variations of (Filipinisms) of English in the discourse of School Publication among Universities and Colleges in Cebu. The study is important because through reading such as student publications, readers acquire implicit knowledge of English. It would increase their knowledge socially and linguistically. The data were analyzed linguistically through the use of discourse analysis. The analysis focused on the emergent variations and composite forms of morphology and syntax. In view of the findings, it brought to light the morphological and syntactical variations immediately involved in Philippine English (Filipinisms). Filipinisms has really an influence from other Englishes in the world specifically, British English. It has been shown that these variations evolved in student publications among the Universities and Colleges in Cebu and proved that language changed and developed from time to time. Therefore, this type of English has come to an effect in school setting, industry and community as well.
Research Area: Linguistics and Interpretation
Title: Umberto Eco’s Reflections on the Emergence of ‘New Realism’
Keywords: Semiotics, Language, Imagination, Literary Text, Fiction, Reality
Author(s): Mudasir Rahman Najar
Author’s Institution: Satya sai university, India
Abstract: In this paper, various approaches towards the analyses of literary texts are discussed with regard to the literary claims of Umberto Eco. He has come with the new ways of interpreting the semiotic theory in its expansive parameters for the textual interpretation. The emergence of language is analysed with the perceptions of its active as well as passive phrases that originated from the various sources. Since Umberto Eco asserts on the exploratory nature of knowledge and meanings, it is very important to mention here that the theory of semiotics also assimilates the semantic reservoirs in the linguistic practices. There is also an idea of continuous formation of ideas and ideologies with the help of sign and signification, and in this process of interpretation, the relevance of the author is considered quite significant. He also emphasised the postmodernist rather deconstructive notion of evaluating symbolic order wherein the binaries are mostly blurred in the interpretations of texts across the socio-political discourses. In addition, there are chances of semantic and epistemological breaks that give scope to the practice of discursive forgeries in the field of knowledge. Besides, the concept of hyperreal is another aspect that may be used as a field of research to expand the epistemological spheres. This attitude towards the development of reality puts us in a new concept of realism i.e. ‘new realism’ that would leave us to such an ambiguous and ambivalent state of mind where it is very difficult to be categorical in our statements and judgmental in our claims. So, the formation of reality is a continuous process with the help of semantic and epistemological discoveries time after time that largely changes the version, under which, the reality is comprehended.
Research Area: Education
Title: Manning Up and Staying Buff: Expanding the Embodiment of Masculinity among Spornosexual Men
Keywords: Spornosexuals, masculinity, Southern Leyte, Philippines, Asia
Author(s): Arseno C. Hinay
Author’s Institution: Southern Leyte, Philippines
Abstract: The perception and portrayal of masculinity have morphed over time leading to a modern classification of man, the Spornosexuals. Through a phenomenological research design, the lived experiences among Spornsexuals residing in the rural province of Southern Leyte, Philippines, were explored, with emphasis on the challenges and rewards upon their embodiment of masculinity, and the struggles they encountered in developing their ideal muscular physique. The coping mechanism exhibited by these individuals in handling the struggles they encountered in their day-to-day lives were uncovered. Their personification of masculinity is under the theory of Social Constructionism. A face-to-face, a semi-structured interview was employed to gather meaningful responses that were analyzed through Colaizzi’s (1978) strategy. It was evident that despite the negative experiences they encountered upon reconstructing their physicality and expressing their masculinity, the rewards they gained, accompanied with their forward-looking motivations, continue to ignite their momentum in owning and expressing who they are. In general, Spornosexuals are unique individuals who need to be understood and embraced just like any other member of society.
Research Area: Law
Title: Prisons of Maldives: A Case Study
Keywords: Prison Law, Human Rights, Maldives, Prisons, Torture, Inhumane Treatment
Author(s): Mohamed Affan Shafy
Author’s Institution: International Islamic University of Malaysia, Malaysia
Abstract: This paper examines the Maldivian prison system and the extent of the failure of authorities to conduct prisons as provided in the laws and regulations of prisons. After a general overview of the prison laws and regulations, we set to theorize that the lack of a positive independent monitoring mechanism has failed to uphold the standards of practice prescribed in the prison laws. In the first study, we asked the prison officers on the code of practice in order to show that the vast majority of setbacks in terms of issues related to human rights, torture, inhumane treatment within the prison system happen due to the very fact that prison officers are complicit in breaking laws which they swore to uphold. In the second part of this paper we asked prisoners on the conduct within prisons and compares the set of data from both prisoners, families of prisoners and prison officers along with the prison laws, regulations and findings by the Human Rights Commission of Maldives from 2013-2017 on prisons, to confirm our findings in practical application of prison laws has so far failed in Maldives. While the evidence is collected from the Maldivian criminal justice system, this study may be extrapolated to other countries in relation to effective monitoring and the enforceability of prison laws.